Basic common fabric knowledge


1、 Classification of fabrics

1. According to the manufacturing method, it can be divided into woven fabric and knitted fabric

(1) Woven blended fabric: because it is made of two groups of warp and weft yarns, it has good dimensional and morphological stability. The clothing made is not easy to deform, but it has no elasticity.

(2) Knitted fabric: it is formed by the coils formed by one or several yarns, which are threaded and connected into pieces, so its dimensional and morphological stability is poor, but its elasticity and drapability are good, so it is soft and comfortable to wear.

2. According to the composition, it can be divided into natural fabrics, chemical fiber fabrics and blended fabrics Natural fabrics: cotton, hemp, wool, silk, etc.

Chemical fiber fabrics: polyester, acrylic, nylon, viscose fiber, spandex, polyester fiber.

Blended fabric: it is made of chemical fiber and natural fiber through textile method, such as wool polyester, polyester cotton, wool linen, polyester nylon spandex, polyester viscose fiber, etc. The main feature is to reflect the superior performance of various fibers in the raw materials, so as to improve the wearability of the fabric and expand the applicability of its clothing. Due to the complexity of processing technology, sometimes the blended fabric is more expensive than the original fabric

2、 Our common fabrics

1. Cotton: plant fiber, its main advantages are good moisture absorption, good air permeability, comfortable wearing, but cotton is easy to wrinkle, can not be dyed with bright colors, easy to fade, fast aging, water washing will shrink to a certain extent, poor elasticity, poor resistance, strong alkali resistance, easy to mold, but resistant to moths.

2. Hemp: as hemp fabric is a kind of plant fiber, its characteristics are basically similar to those of cotton fabric, except that the surface of hemp fabric is more smooth, elastic, breathable and has strong moisture absorption and heat dissipation.

(1) The strength, thermal conductivity and moisture absorption of hemp plants are greater than those of cotton fabrics, which are tough, durable, sweat absorbing and refreshing;

(2) It has good mould resistance and water resistance, and is not easily affected by water erosion.

(3) The sensitivity to acid and alkali is low, and the elasticity of hemp fiber is the worst among all kinds of natural fibers;

(4) The ironing temperature of linen fabric is 170~195 degrees. After spraying water, it can be ironed directly on the opposite side.

Washing knowledge: the maintenance method is similar to that of cotton. After washing, it is not necessary to wring water and hang it to dry.

3. Wool fabric (1) firm and wear-resistant: the surface of wool fiber is protected by a layer of scales, so that the fabric has good wear-resistant performance and hard and tough texture;

(2) Light weight and good warmth retention: the relative density of wool is smaller than that of cotton. Therefore, wool fabrics of the same size and thickness are lightweight. Wool is a poor conductor of heat, so wool fabrics have good warmth retention, especially the shrunken woolen fabrics, with flat fluff on the surface, which can resist the invasion of external cold air and make the heat generated by the human body difficult to emit;

(3) Good elasticity and wrinkle resistance: wool has natural curl, high resilience, and good elasticity of fabric. Clothes sewn with wool fabric are not easy to wrinkle after ironing and setting, and can keep the surface flat, neat and beautiful for a long time, but sometimes there are wool balls.

(4) Strong moisture absorption and comfortable wearing: wool fabric has strong moisture absorption, which can absorb the moisture discharged from the human body, so it feels dry and comfortable when wearing.

(5) Not easy to fade: high-grade velvet fabrics are generally dyed with a higher process, so that the dyeing can penetrate into the inner layer of the fiber, and the fabric can keep the color fresh for a long time.

(6) Dirt resistance: because there are scales on the surface, it can hide dust and do not generate static electricity.

(7) The alkali resistance is poor, because the animal protein is easy to mildew and grow insects under wet conditions, so it is difficult to wash. It will shrink and deform after washing, so it can only be dry cleaned.

Washing knowledge: washing with special silk and wool detergent requires padding or steam ironing. Iron the reverse side first and then the front side, otherwise "Aurora" will appear

4. Silk: it has good luster and bright color. The fabric made of it is light, soft, hygroscopic, and naturally contains silk protein, which is good for skin health. The disadvantages are shrinkage, easy wrinkling, easy fading and ironing after washing. Special attention should be paid to the storage of clothes. Acidic detergent should be used during washing.

Washing knowledge: wash with special silk and wool detergent, hang it in a cool place to dry, and the ironing temperature is 150 ℃.

5. Polyester:

(1) Polyester fabric has high strength and elasticity recovery. It is not only firm and durable, but also crisp and wrinkle resistant. It is iron free after washing.

(2) Polyester fabric has less hygroscopicity, so it is easy to wash and dry during wearing. After wetting, the strength does not decrease and does not deform. It has good washability and wearability.

(3) The deficiency of polyester fabric is poor permeability. It is stuffy and easy to generate static electricity and exposed dust contamination. It has poor anti fusibility. Holes are formed immediately when it is exposed to soot and sparks during wearing. However, the above shortcomings can be improved on the fabrics blended with cotton, wool, silk, hemp and viscose fibers.

(4) Polyester fabric has good wear resistance and thermoplasticity. Therefore, the clothing made has good pleating and shape retention. Washing knowledge: it is suitable for all kinds of detergents. It needs padding or steam ironing. Otherwise, there will be "mirror" or fabric softening. The ironing temperature is at the bottom of 180-220 ℃.

6. Nylon: Nylon competes with synthetic fiber clothing due to its excellent wear resistance and light weight. For half a century, nylon still occupies an important position.

(1) The wear resistance of nylon fabric ranks first among all kinds of natural fiber and chemical fiber fabrics. Similar products are 10 times higher than cotton and viscose fabrics, 20 times higher than pure wool fabrics, and about 4 times higher than polyester fabrics. Its strength is also very high, and the decrease of wet strength is very small. Therefore, nylon pure and blended fabrics have good durability.

(2) Among synthetic fiber fabrics, nylon fabric has better hygroscopicity, so its wearing comfort and dyeability are better than polyester fabric.

(3) Nylon fabric is light in material, which can be used in clothing to add the feeling of light clothing.

(4) Nylon fabric has excellent elasticity and elasticity recovery, but it is easy to deform under small external force. Therefore, it is difficult to shape garment pleats, and it is easy to wrinkle in the process of wearing.

(5) Nylon fabric has poor heat resistance and light resistance. Pay attention to washing, ironing and wearing conditions during use to avoid damage.

Washing knowledge: it is suitable for all kinds of detergents. It needs cloth or steam ironing. Do not use too much force when ironing and washing. The ironing temperature is 150-180 ℃.

7. Acrylic:

(1) Acrylic fiber has the reputation of synthetic wool, and its elasticity and fluffy degree can be comparable with natural wool. Acrylic fabric is not only crisp and wrinkle resistant, but also warm

Better. The results of thermal insulation test show that the thermal insulation of acrylic fabric is about 15% higher than that of similar wool fabrics.

(2) The light resistance of acrylic fabric ranks first among all kinds of fibers. Silk, nylon, viscose and wool fabrics that have been exposed to sunlight for one year have been basically damaged, while the strength of acrylic fabrics has only decreased by about 20%.

(3) Acrylic fabric has a bright color, which can be blended with wool in an appropriate proportion to improve the appearance color without affecting the hand feel.

(4) Acrylic fabric has good heat resistance, which ranks second in synthetic fiber. It also has acid resistance and oxidation resistance, so it is widely used.

(5) Among synthetic fabrics, acrylic fabrics are lighter.

(6) Acrylic fabric has poor hygroscopicity, smothering feeling and poor comfort.

(7) The structure of acrylic fiber determines that the abrasion resistance of its fabric is not good, and it is the product with the worst abrasion resistance among chemical fiber fabrics (the washing and maintenance method is similar to that of nylon).

8. Viscose fiber

(1) Viscose fiber has excellent comfort performance: moisture absorption, air permeability, softness and drapability. The moisture absorption performance of viscose fiber fabric is the best in chemical fiber, and its wearability and dyeing are better than that of synthetic fiber fabric

(2) Viscose fabric has soft hand feel and bright color, which is superior to other chemical fiber fabrics and has a sense of magnificence and nobility.

(3) Ordinary viscose fabric has good drapability, but poor stiffness, resilience and crease resistance.

(4) The dry and wet strength of rich fiber fabric is higher than that of ordinary viscose fabric, and its crisp and wrinkle resistance is also good. The degree of bright color is slightly poor, and monochrome printing is generally preferred.

(5) Viscose fabric with high wet modulus has soft hand feel, smooth surface, small deformation in wet state, good wear resistance, washing resistance and alkali resistance. The blended fabric containing cotton can be mercerized.

(6) The new environment-friendly Tencel fiber integrates the advantages of cotton, washing and viscose fiber. It has soft hand feel, good wrinkle resistance, strong moisture absorption and permeability, and is comfortable to wear. The foreign trade name of Tencel fiber is

(7) It is mainly made of wood, cotton linter, reed and other materials containing natural cellulose through chemical processing, with poor type retention.

Washing and maintenance method: similar to nylon.

9. Spandex elastic fabric

It refers to the fabric containing ammonia fiber, which is a relatively expensive material due to its high elasticity. Therefore, the elasticity of the fabric varies with the proportion of mixed spandex. Spandex elastic fabric has an elastic range of 1% - 45%, which can integrate the curvilinear beauty of garment modeling with the comfort of wearing. Its appearance style, moisture absorption and air permeability are close to those of similar products of various natural fibers.